National Education Policy(NEP) – 2020

National Education Policy NEP - 2020
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The Union Cabinet Approved the National Education Policy (NEP) – 2020 on 29 July, 2020. The aim of the new education policy is to introduce several changes in the Indian education system- from the school to college level.

Highlights

School Education

  • The 10+2 structure has been replaced with 5+3+3+4 consisting of 12 years of school and three years of Anganwadi or pre-school.
  • The split will be as follows –
    • a foundational stage(ages 3 to 8 years)
    • three years of pre-primary(ages 8 – 11 years)
    • a preparatory stage(ages 11 to 14 years)
    • a secondary stage( ages 14 to 18 years)
  • No exams will be held every year. School students will sit only for three exams- at class 3 , 5 and 8.
  • Board exams in schools will be held for class 10 and 12 but will be re-designed with an aim of holistic development. Test of actual knowledge of students will be done instead of “rote learning”.
  • National Assessment Centre- ‘PARAKH’ has been created to assess the students.
  • Home language, mother tongue or regional language will be the medium of instruction up to Class 5.
  • School curriculum will also be reduced to core concepts and there will be integration of vocational education from Class 6.
  • Report cards will be a comprehensive report on skills and capabilities instead of just marks and statements.
  • National mission will focus on basic literacy and basic numeracy.
  • Major changes have been announced in the pedagogical structure of curriculum with no rigid separation between streams; all
  • Separations between vocational and academic and curricular and extra-curricular will also be removed.
National Education Policy(NEP) - 2020

Higher Education

  • A Higher Education Council of India(HECI) will be set up to regulate higher education. The council will aim at increasing the gross enrollment ratio from 26.3 percent to 50 percent by 2035.
  • The HECI will have four independent verticals- National Higher Education Regulatory Council for regulation, General Education Council to set standards, Higher Education Grants Council for funding and National Accreditation Council for accreditation.
  • MPhil courses will be discontinued under the new policy and all the courses at undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD level will now be interdisciplinary.
  • All higher education institutions, except legal and medical colleges, will be governed by a single regulator.
  • Common norms will be in place for private and public higher education institutions. It will also cap fees charged by educational
  • institutions.
  • Common entrance exams will be held for admission to universities and higher education institutions.
  • There will be holistic and multidisciplinary education in terms of flexiblity of subjects.
  • Other features include graded academic, administrative and financial autonomy of institutions.
  • E-courses will be developed in regional languages; virtual labs will be developed and a National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) is being created.
  • There are over 45,000 affiliated colleges in our country. Under graded autonomy, academic, administrative and financial autonomy will be given to colleges, on the basis of the status of their accreditation.

THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE POLICY:

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  • recognizing, identifying, and fostering the unique capabilities of each student, by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student’s holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres.
  • according the highest priority to achieving Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by all students by Grade 3.;
  • flexibility, so that learners have the ability to choose their learning trajectories and programmes, and thereby choose their own paths in life according to their talents and interests;
  • no hard separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams, etc. in order to eliminate harmful hierarchies among, and silos between different areas of learning.
  • multidisciplinarity and a holistic education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports for a multidisciplinary world in order to ensure the unity and integrity of all knowledge;
  • emphasis on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning and learning-for-exams.;
  • creativity and critical thinking to encourage logical decision-making and innovation;
  • ethics and human & Constitutional values like empathy, respect for others, cleanliness, courtesy, democratic spirit, spirit of service, respect for public property, scientific temper, liberty, responsibility, pluralism, equality, and justice;
  • promoting multilingualism and the power of language in teaching and learning;
  • life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork, and resilience;
  • focus on regular formative assessment for learning rather than the summative assessment that encourages today’s ‘coaching culture”;
  • extensive use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for Divyang students, and educational planning and management;
  • respect for diversity and respect for the local context in all curriculum, pedagogy, and policy, always keeping in mind that education is a concurrent subject;
  • full equity and inclusion as the cornerstone of all educational decisions to ensure that all students are able to thrive in the education system;
  • synergy in curriculum across all levels of education from early childhood care and education to school education to higher education;
  • teachers and faculty as the heart of the learning process their recruitment, continuous professional development, positive working environments and service conditions;
  • a ‘light but tight regulatory framework to ensure integrity, transparency, and resource efficiency of the educational system through audit and public disclosure while encouraging innovation and out-of-the-box ideas through autonomy, good governance, and empowerment;
  • outstanding research as a corequisite for outstanding education and development;
  • continuous review of progress based on sustained research and regular assessment by educational experts;
  • a rootedness and pride in India, and its rich, diverse, ancient and modern culture and knowledge systems and traditions.
  • education is a public service; access to quality education must be considered a basic right of every child;
  • substantial investment in a strong, vibrant public education system as well as the encouragement and facilitation of true philanthropic private and community participation.

THE VISION OF THIS POLICY

  • An education system rooted in Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, that is Bharat, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society, by providing high-quality education to all, and thereby making India a global knowledge superpower.
  • The curriculum and pedagogy of our institutions must develop a deep sense of respect towards the fundamental duties and Constitutional values, bonding with one’s country, and a conscious awareness of one’s roles and responsibilities in a changing world.
  • .To instill a deep-rooted pride in being Indian, not only in thought, but also in spirit, intellect, and deeds, as well as to develop knowledge, skills, values, and dispositions that support responsible commitment to human rights, sustainable development and living, and global well-being, thereby reflecting a truly global citizen.

Salient Features of National Education Policy(NEP) – 2020

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SALIENT FEATURES OF NEP 2020: SCHOOL EDUCATION

1. NEW PEDAGOGICAL AND CURRICULAR STRUCTURE

  • The extant 10+2 structure in school education will be modified with a new pedagogical and curricular restructuring of 5+3+3+4 covering ages 3-18.
  • Currently, children in the age group of 3-6 are not covered in the 10+2 structure as Class 1 begins at age 6. In the new 5+3+3+4 structure, a strong base of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) from age 3 is also included.
  • Universal provisioning of quality early childhood development, care, and education must thus be achieved as soon as possible, and no later than 2030, to ensure that all students entering Grade 1 are school ready.
  • The overarching goal will be to ensure universal access to high-quality ECCE across the country in a phased manner.
  • A concerted national effort will be made to ensure universal access and afford opportunity to all children of the country to obtain quality holistic education-including vocational education from pre-school to Grade 12.
  • The standard-setting/regulatory framework and the facilitating systems for school regulation, accreditation, and governance shall be reviewed to enable improvements on the basis of the learning and experiences gained in the last decade. This review will aim to ensure that all students, particularly students from underprivileged and disadvantaged sections, shall have universal, free and compulsory access to high-quality and equitable schooling from early
    childhood care and education (age 3 on wards) through higher secondary education .

2. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION: THE FOUNDATION OF LEARNING

  • Universal provisioning of quality early childhood development, care, and education must be achieved as soon as possible, and no later than 2030.
  • The overall aim of ECCE will be to attain optimal outcomes in the domains of: physical and motor development, cognitive development, socio-emotional-ethical development, cultural/artistic development, and the development of communication and early language, literacy, and numeracy.
  • A National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for children up to the age of 8 will be developed by NCERT.
  • .The numerous rich local traditions of India developed over millennia in ECCE involving art, stories, poetry, games, songs, and more, will also be suitably incorporated.
  • ECCE shall be delivered through a significantly expanded and strengthened system of early childhood education institutions consisting of the following:
    • stand-alone Anganwadis;
    • Anganwadis co-located with primary schools;
    • pre-primary schools/sections covering at least age 5 to 6 years co-
    • located with existing primary schools; and
    • stand-alone pre-schools
  • All of above would have workers/teachers specially trained in the curriculum and pedagogy of ECCE.
  • .For universal access to ECCE, Anganwadi Centres will be strengthened.
  • Prior to the age of 5 every child will move to a “Preparatory Class” or “Balavatika” (that is, before Class 1), which has an ECCE-qualified teacher.
  • Training of current Anganwadi workers/teachers: those with qualifications of 10+2 and above shall be given a 6-month certificate programme in ECCE; and those with lower educational qualifications shall be given a one-year diploma programme.
  • These programmes may be run through digital/distance mode allowing teachers to acquire ECCE qualifications with minimal disruption to their current work.
  • ECCE curriculum: The planning and implementation of early childhood care and education curriculum will be carried out jointly by the Ministries of HRD, Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare (HFW), and Tribal Affairs.

3. FOUNDATIONAL LITERACY AND NUMERACY: AN URGENT & NECESSARY PREREQUISITE TO LEARNING

  • A National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy will be set up by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) on priority.
  • .All State/UT governments will prepare an implementation plan for attaining universal foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary schools for all learners by grade 3 to be achieved by 2025.
  • Teachers will be trained to impart foundational literacy and numeracy. To ensure that all students are school ready, an interim 3-month play-based school preparation module’ for all Grade 1 students will be developed by NCERT and SCERTs.
  • A national repository of high-quality resources on foundational literacy and numeracy will be made available on the Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing (DIKSHA).
  • States to consider establishing innovative models to foster peer-tutoring and volunteer activities, etc. for promoting foundational literacy and numeracy.
  • Public and school libraries will be significantly expanded, and digital libraries will also be established.
  • A National Book Promotion Policy will be formulated.
  • The nutrition and health (including mental health) of children will be addressed, through healthy meals and regular health check-ups, and health cards will be issued to monitor the same.

4. CURTAILING DROPOUT RATES AND ENSURING UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO EDUCATION AT ALL LEVELS

  • Two initiatives for above:
    • no school remains deficient on infrastructure support from pre-primary school to Grade 12 and alternative and innovative education centres to ensure that children of migrant labourers, and other children who are dropping out of school due to various circumstances are brought back into mainstream education.
    • achieve universal participation in school by carefully tracking students, as well as their learning levels.
  • Counsellors or well-trained social workers connected to schools/school complexes.
  • Scope of school education will be broadened to facilitate multiple pathways to learning involving both formal and non-formal education modes.
  • NIOS and State Open Schools will also offer A, B and C levels that are equivalent to Grades 3, 5, and 8 of the formal school system; secondary education programs that are equivalent to Grades 10 and 12; vocational education courses/programs; and adult literacy and life-enrichment programs.
  • .States encouraged to develop these in regional languages by establishing new/strengthening existing State Institutes of Open Schooling (SIOS).
  • The focus will be to have less emphasis on input and greater emphasis on output potential concerning desired learning outcomes.
  • Efforts to involve community: Databases of literate volunteers, retired
  • scientists/government/semi government employees, alumni, and educators will be created for this purpose.

5. RESTRUCTURING SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY IN A NEW 5+3+3+4 DESIGN

  • The curricular and pedagogical structure of school education: guided by a 5+3+3+4 design corresponding to the age ranges of 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years, respectively.
  • No parallel changes to physical infrastructure will be required.
  • It will consist of:
    • Foundational Stage (in two parts, that is, 3 years of Anganwadi/pre-school + 2 years in primary school in Grades 1-2; both together covering ages 3-8): with flexible, multilevel, play/activity-based learning and the curriculum and pedagogy of ECCE.
    • Preparatory Stage (Grades 3-5, covering ages 8-11): with the introduction Experiential learning across the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities.
    • Middle Stage (Grades 6-8, covering ages 11-14): with a subject-oriented pedagogical and curricular style.
    • Secondary Stage (Grades 9-12 in two phases, i.e., 9 and 10 in the first and 11 and 12 in the second, covering ages 14-18) : with greater depth, greater critical thinking, greater attention to life aspirations, and greater flexibility and student choice of subjects, and option to exit at grade 10 and re-enter at a later stage in grade 11.

6. HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNERS

  • Overall thrust of curriculum and pedagogy reform to move towards real understanding and learning how to learn and away from the culture of rote learning.
  • Aim of education will not only be cognitive development, but also building character and creating holistic and well-rounded individuals equipped with the key 21st century skills.
  • Specific sets of skills and values across domains will be identified for integration and incorporation at each stage of learning, from pre-school to higher education.

7. REDUCTION IN CURRICULUM CONTENT TO ENHANCE ESSENTIAL LEARNING AND CRITICAL THINKING

  • Curriculum content will be reduced in each subject to its core essentials, and make space for critical thinking and more holistic, inquiry-based, discovery-based, discussion-based, and analysis-based learning.
  • The mandated content will focus on key concepts, ideas, applications, and problem-solving.
  • .Teaching and learning will be conducted in a more interactive manner

8. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING

  • In all stages, experiential learning will be adopted.
  • Will include hands-on learning, arts-integrated and sports-integrated education, story-telling based pedagogy, among others, as standard pedagogy.
  • Classroom transactions will shift, towards competency-based learning and education.
  • The assessment tools (including assessment “as”, “of”, and “for” learning) will be aligned with the learning outcomes, capabilities, and dispositions as specified for each subject of a given class.

9. NO HARD SEPARATION

  • Students will be given increased flexibility and choice of subjects to study, particularly in secondary school – including subjects in physical education, the arts and crafts, and vocational skills.
  • There will be no hard separation among .curricular’, ‘extracurricular’, or “co-curricular’, among ‘arts’, ‘humanities’, and ‘sciences’, or between ‘vocational or ‘academic’ streams.
  • Subjects such as physical education, the arts and crafts, and vocational skills, in addition to science, humanities, and mathematics, will be incorporated throughout the school curriculum.
  • Each of the four stages of school education, may consider moving towards a semester or any other system that allows the inclusion of shorter modules

10 MULTILINGUALISM AND THE POWER OF LANGUAGE

  • Wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/mother tongue/local language/regional language.
  • Thereafter, the home/local language shall continue to be taught as a language wherever possible.
  • .This will be followed by both public and private schools.
  • High-quality textbooks, including in science, will be made available in home languages/mother tongue.
  • All languages will be taught in an enjoyable and interactive style.
  • States may enter into bilateral agreements to hire teachers from each other.
  • The three-language learned by children will be the choices of States, regions, and of the students, so long as at least two of the three languages are native to India.
  • Efforts to prepare high-quality bilingual textbooks and teaching-learning materials for science and mathematics, so that students are enabled to think and speak about the two subjects both in their home language/mother tongue and in English.
  • Indian Sign Language (ISL) will be standardized across the country, and National and State curriculum materials developed for use by students with hearing impairment.

11. CURRICULAR INTEGRATION OF ESSENTIAL SUBJECTS, SKILLS, AND CAPACITIES.

  • Certain subjects, skills, and capacities will be emphasized in school: such as, scientific temper and evidence-based thinking; creativity and innovativeness; sense of aesthetics and art; oral and written communication; health and nutrition; physical education, fitness, wellness, and sports; collaboration and teamwork; problem solving and logical reasoning; vocational exposure and skills; digital literacy, coding, and computational thinking; ethical and moral reasoning; etc.
  • Introduction of contemporary subjects such as Artificial Intelligence, Design Thinking,
  • Holistic Health, Organic Living, Environmental Education, Global Citizenship Education (GCED), etc. at relevant stages
  • .Mathematics and computational thinking to be given increased emphasis throughout school years. Activities involving coding to be introduced in Middle Stage.
  • Bagless days will be encouraged throughout the year for various types of enrichment activities involving arts, quizzes, sports, and vocational crafts.

12. NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK FOR SCHOOL EDUCATION (NCFSE)

  • The formulation of a new and comprehensive National Curricular Framework for School.
  • Education, NCFSE 2020-21, will be undertaken by the NCERT.
  • The NCFSE document shall henceforth be revisited and updated once every 5-10 years, taking into account frontline curriculum.

13. NATIONAL TEXTBOOKS WITH LOCAL CONTENT AND FLAVOUR

  • All textbooks shall aim to contain the essential core material on a national level, but at the same time contain any desired nuances and supplementary material as per local contexts an needs.
  • States will prepare their own curricula which may be based on the NCFSE prepared by NCERT to the extent possible and prepare textbooks (which may be based on the NCERT textbook materials to the extent possible), incorporating State flavour and material as needed.
  • Concerted efforts, through suitable changes in curriculum and pedagogy, will be made to significantly reduce the weight of school bags and textbooks.

14. KNOWLEDGE OF INDIA

  • Will include knowledge from ancient India to modern India as well as future aspirations.
  • Will be incorporated in an accurate and scientific manner throughout the school curriculum wherever relevant.
  • Indian Knowledge Systems, including tribal knowledge and indigenous and traditional ways of learning, will be covered.
  • Specific courses in tribal ethno-medicinal practices, forest management, traditional (organic) crop cultivation, natural farming, etc. will also be made available.
  • Video documentaries on inspirational luminaries of India, ancient and modern, in science and beyond.
  • Students will be given a logical framework for making ethical decisions at a young age.
  • In later years, this would then be expanded along themes of cheating, violence, plagiarism, littering, tolerance, equality, empathy, etc., with a view to enabling children to embrace moral/ethical values in conducting one’s life.
  • Traditional Indian values and all basic human and Constitutional values will be developed in all students.
  • Excerpts from the Indian Constitution will also be considered essential reading for all students.
  • Basic training in health, including preventive health, mental health, good nutrition, personal and public hygiene, disaster response and first-aid will also be included in the curriculum, as well as scientific explanations of the detrimental and damaging effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.

15.TRANSFORMING ASSESSMENT FOR STUDENT DEVELOPMENT

  • All students will take school examinations in Grades 3, 5, and 8 also, which will test achievement of basic learning outcomes, and application of knowledge in real-life situations.
  • The Board exams for Grades 10 and 12 will be continued.
  • Board exams will be made easier’, as they will test primarily core capacities/competencies rather than months of coaching/memorization.
  • Boards may over time also develop further viable models of Board Exams, such as – annual/semester/modular Board Exams; offering all subjects beginning with mathematics, at two levels; two parts exams or objective type and descriptive type.
  • With regard to all of the above, guidelines will be prepared by NCERT, in consultation with SCERTS, Boards of Assessment (BoAs), and PARAKH, the proposed new National Assessment Centre etc.,
  • The progress card of all students for school-based assessment will be redesigned.
  • The progress card will be a holistic, 360-degree, multidimensional report that reflects in great detail the progress and the uniqueness of each learner in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains.
  • The progress card will include self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment.
  • Teachers to be prepared for a transformation in the assessment system by the 2022-23 academic session.
  • A National Assessment Centre, PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) to be set up as a standard-setting body for setting norms, standards, and guidelines for student assessment and evaluation for all recognized school boards.
  • .The National Testing Agency (NTA) will offer a high-quality common aptitude test, as well as specialized common subject exams in the sciences, humanities, languages, arts, and vocational subjects, at least twice every year for university entrance exams.

16. SUPPORT FOR GIFTED STUDENTS/STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL TALENTS

  • The NCERT and NCTE will develop guidelines for the education of gifted children.
  • B.Ed. programmes may also allow a specialization in the education of gifted children.
  • Teachers will encourage students with singular interests and/or talents in the classroom by giving them supplementary enrichment material and guidance.
  • Olympiads and competitions in various subjects will be conducted across the country.
  • Online apps with quizzes, competitions, assessments, enrichment materials, and online communities for shared interests will be developed as group activities.
  • Schools will develop smart classrooms, in a phased manner.

17. TEACHERS RECRUITMENT AND DEPLOYMENT

  • Transfers will be conducted through an online computerized system that ensures transparency.
  • Teacher Eligibility Tests (TETs) will be strengthened and extended to cover pre-primary to grade 12 teachers, in both public and private schools.
  • For subject teachers, suitable TET or NTA test scores along with a classroom demonstration will be utilized for recruitment.
  • A technology-based comprehensive teacher-requirement planning forecasting exercise will be conducted by each State to assess expected subject-wise teacher vacancies over the next two decades.

18. CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD)

  • Continuous opportunities for self-improvement will be offered in multiple modes, such as, workshops, online teacher development modules, etc.
  • Each teacher will be expected to participate in at least 50 hours of CPD opportunities every year driven by their own interests.
  • School Principals will also be expected to participate in 50 hours or more of CPD modules per year, covering leadership and management, with a focus on preparing and implementing pedagogical plans based on competency-based education.

19. PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS

  • A common guiding set of National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) will be developed by 2022, by the NCTE.
  • The standards would cover expectations of the role of the teacher at different levels of expertise/stage, and the competencies required for that stage.
  • NCTE to be restructured as a Professional Standard Setting Body (PSSB) under General Education Council (GEC).

20 SPECIAL EDUCATORS

  • For subject teaching for children with disabilities/Divyang children at the Middle and Secondary school level, specializations will be offered during or after pre-service teacher preparation with greater synergy between the course curriculum of NCTE and RCI.

21. APPROACH TO TEACHER EDUCATION

  • Teacher education will gradually be moved into multidisciplinary colleges and universities by 2030.
  • By 2030, the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree.
  • The 2-year B.Ed. programmes will also be offered only for those who have already obtained Bachelor’s Degrees in other specialized subjects.
  • Adapted 1-year B.Ed. programmes for those who have completed the equivalent of 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s Degrees or who have obtained a Master’s degree in a specialty and wish to become a subject teacher in that specialty.
  • Multidisciplinary higher education institutions having accreditation for ODL may also offer high-quality B.Ed. programmes in blended or ODL mode.
  • All B.Ed. programmes will include training in time-tested as well as the most recent techniques in pedagogy, including pedagogy with respect to foundational literacy and numeracy, multi- level teaching and evaluation, teaching children with disabilities, teaching children with special interests or talents, use of educational technology, and learner-centered and collaborative learning.
  • Special shorter local teacher education programmes will also be available at BITES, DIETS, for eminent local persons who can be hired to teach at schools or school complexes as ‘master instructors’, for the purpose of promoting local professions, knowledge, and skills, e.g., local art, music, agriculture, business, sports, carpentry, and other vocational crafts.
  • Shorter post-B.Ed. certification courses will also be made widely available, at multidisciplinary colleges and universities, to teachers who may wish to move into more specialized areas of teaching.
  • By 2021, a new and comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, NCFTE 2021, will be formulated by the NCTE in consultation with NCERT
  • The NCFTE will thereafter be revised once every 5-10 years by reflecting the changes in revised NCFs as well as emerging needs in teacher education.

22. TEACHER EDUCATION

  • The Regulatory System shall be empowered to take stringent action against substandard and dysfunctional teacher education institutions (TEIS) that do not meet basic educational criteria, after giving one year for remedy of the breaches.
  • By 2030, only educationally sound, multidisciplinary, and integrated teacher education programmes shall be in force.
  • All multidisciplinary universities and colleges – will aim to establish, education departments will also run B.Ed. programmes, in collaboration with other departments such as psychology, philosophy, sociology, neuroscience, Indian languages, arts, music, history, literature, physical education, science and mathematics.
  • All stand-alone TEIs will be required to convert to multidisciplinary institutions by 2030, since they will have to offer the 4-year integrated teacher preparation programme.
  • The admission to pre-service teacher preparation programmes shall be through suitable subject and aptitude tests conducted by the National Testing Agency.
  • All fresh Ph.D. entrants, irrespective of discipline, will be required to take credit-based courses in teaching/education/pedagogy/writing related to their chosen Ph.D subject and will also have a minimum number of hours of actual teaching experience.
  • The use of technology platforms such as SWAYAM/DIKSHA for online training of teachers will be encouraged.
  • A National Mission for Mentoring shall be established, with a large pool of outstanding senior/retired faculty who would be willing to provide short and long-term mentoring professional support to university/college teachers.

23. EQUITABLE AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: LEARNING FOR ALL

  • Focus on Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDGs)
  • SEDGs can be broadly categorized based on:
    • Gender identities (particularly female and transgender individuals),
    • Socio-cultural identities (such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, OBCs, and minorities),
    • Geographical identities (such as students from villages, small towns, and aspirational districts),
    • Disabilities (including learning disabilities), and
    • Socio-economic conditions (such as migrant communities, low income households, children in vulnerable situations, victims of or children of victims of trafficking, orphans including child beggars in urban areas, and the urban poor).
  • Separate strategies will be formulated for focused attention for reducing each of the category-wise gaps in school education.
  • Within SEDGs, and with respect to all the above policy points, special attention will be given to reduce the disparities in the educational development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. As a part of the efforts to enhance participation in school education, special hostels in dedicated regions, bridge courses, and financial assistance through fee waivers and scholarships will be offered.
  • Regions of the country with large populations from educationally-disadvantaged SEDGs should be declared Special Education Zones (SEZs), for additional concerted efforts.
  • A ‘Gender-Inclusion Fund will be constituted to provide equitable quality education for all girls as well as transgender students.
  • Similar ‘Inclusion Fund’ schemes shall also be developed to address analogous access issues for other SEDGs.
  • Under the aegis of the Ministry of Defence, State Governments may encourage opening NCC wings in their secondary and higher secondary schools, including those located in tribal dominated areas.
  • Free boarding facilities will be built – matching the standard of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas particularly for students who from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas will be strengthened and expanded to increase the participation in quality schools (up to Grade 12)
  • Additional Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and Kendriya Vidyalayas will be built around the country, especially in aspirational districts, Special Education Zones, and other disadvantaged areas.
  • Pre-school sections covering at least one year of early childhood care and education will be added to Kendriya Vidyalayas and other primary schools around the nation, particularly in disadvantaged areas.
  • Schools/school complexes will be provided resources for the integration of children with disabilities, recruitment of special educators with cross-disability training, and for the establishment of resource centres
  • Barrier free access for all children with disabilities will be enabled as per the RPWD Act.
  • Assistive devices and appropriate technology-based tools, language-appropriate teaching- learning materials will be made available.
  • NIOS will develop high-quality modules to teach Indian Sign Language, and to teach other basic subjects using Indian Sign Language.
  • As per the RPWD Act 2016, children with benchmark disabilities shall have the choice of regular or special schooling. Resource centres in conjunction with special educators will support the rehabilitation and educational needs of learners with severe or multiple disabilities.
  • Knowledge of how to teach children with specific disabilities will be an integral part of all teacher education programmes.
  • One-on-one teachers and tutors, peer tutoring, open schooling, appropriate infrastructure, and suitable technological interventions to ensure access can be particularly effective for certain children with disabilities .
  • Alternative forms of schools, will be encouraged to preserve their traditions or alternative pedagogical styles. At the same time, they will be supported to integrate the subject and learning areas prescribed by the NCFSE into their curricula in order to reduce and eventually eliminate the underrepresentation of children from these schools in higher education.
  • All participants in the school education system, including teachers, principals, administrators, counsellors, and students, will be sensitized to the requirements of all students, the notions of
  • inclusion and equity, and the respect, dignity, and privacy of all persons.
  • The school curriculum will include, early on, material on human values such as respect for all persons, empathy, tolerance, human rights, gender equality, non-violence, global citizenship, inclusion, and equity. It would also include more detailed knowledge of various cultures, religions, languages, gender identities, etc. to sensitize and develop respect for diversity.

24. EFFICIENT RESOURCING AND EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE THROUGH SCHOOL COMPLEXES/CLUSTERS

  • The challenges of optimal utilization and sharing of resources will, by 2025, be addressed by State/UT governments by adopting innovative mechanisms to group or rationalize schools, such as, school complexes.
  • Benefits of school complex include – improved support for children with disabilities, more topic-centred clubs and academic/sports/arts/crafts events across school complexes, sharing of teachers including use of ICT tools to conduct virtual classes, better student support, enrolment, attendance, and performance through the sharing of counsellors.
  • To further enhance cooperation and positive synergy among schools, including between public and private schools, the twinning/pairing of one public school with one private school will be adopted across the country.

25. STANDARD-SETTING AND ACCREDITATION FOR SCHOOL EDUCATION

  • Independent responsibilities within the State school education system and the approach to regulation are as follows:
    • The Department of School Education will be responsible for overall monitoring and policymaking for continual improvement.
    • The educational operations and service provision for the public schooling system of the whole State will be handled by the Directorate of School Education.
    • An effective quality self-regulation or accreditation system will be instituted for all stages of education including pre-school education – private, public, and philanthropic to ensure compliance with essential quality standards. States/UTs will set up an independent, State-wide, body called the State School Standards Authority (SSSA) which will establish a minimal set of standards. This information shall be self- disclosed and will be made available on a public website maintained by the SSSA.
    • Academic matters, including academic standards and curricula in the State will be led by the SCERT (with close consultation and collaboration with the NCERT).
  • The SCERT will develop a School Quality Assessment and Accreditation Framework (SQAAF) through wide consultations with all stakeholders.
  • Public and private schools (except the schools that are managed/aided/controlled by the Central government) will be assessed and accredited on the same criteria, benchmarks, and processes.

26. REIMAGINING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

  • By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education
  • Beginning with vocational exposure at early ages in middle and secondary school, quality vocational education will be integrated smoothly into higher education.
  • Every child to learn at least one vocation and exposed to several more.
  • .Sampling of important vocational crafts, such as carpentry, electric work, metal work, gardening, pottery making, etc., as decided by States and local communities during Grades 6-8.
  • A 10-day bagless period sometime during Grades 6-8 to intern with local vocational experts such as carpenters, gardeners, potters, artists, etc.
  • Similar internship opportunities to learn vocational subjects to students throughout Grades 6-12, including holiday periods.
  • Vocational courses through online mode will also be made available.
  • Vocational education will be integrated in the educational offerings of all secondary schools in a phased manner over the next decade. Towards this, secondary schools will also collaborate with ITIs, polytechnics, local industry, etc. Skill labs will also be set up

27. ADULT EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING

  • An adult education curriculum framework will be developed by a new constituent body of the NCERT that is dedicated to adult education
  • The curriculum framework for adult education will include at least five types of programmes, each with clearly defined outcomes:
    • foundational literacy and numeracy;
    • critical life skills (including financial literacy, digital literacy, commercial skills, health care and awareness, etc.);
    • vocational skills development
    • basic education (including preparatory, middle, and secondary stage equivalency);
    • continuing education (including engaging holistic adult education courses in arts, sciences, technology, culture, sports, and recreation, etc.
  • Use of schools/ school complexes beyond school hours and public library spaces for adult education courses which will be ICT-equipped when possible and for other community engagement and enrichment activities.
  • Trained instructors/educators will be required to deliver the curriculum framework to mature learners
  • Qualified community members including from Higher Educational Institutions to engage with their local communities will be encouraged and welcomed to take a short training course and volunteer.
  • Quality technology-based options for adult learning such as apps, online courses/modules, satellite-based TV channels, online books, and ICT-equipped libraries and Adult Education Centres, etc. will be developed.

SALIENT FEATURES OF NEP 2020: HIGHER EDUCATION

1.QUALITY UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES:

  • Quality higher education must aim to develop good, thoughtful, well-rounded, and creative individuals.
  • It must enable an individual to study one or more specialized areas of interest at a deep level, and also develop character, ethical and Constitutional values, intellectual curiosity, scientific temper, creativity, spirit of service, and 21st century capabilities across a range of disciplines including sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, languages, as well as professional, technical, and vocational subjects.
  • A quality higher education must enable personal accomplishment and enlightenment, constructive public engagement, and productive contribution to the society.
  • It must prepare students for more meaningful and satisfying lives and work roles and enable economic independence.
  • Some of the major problems currently faced by the higher education system in India include:
    • a severely fragmented higher educational ecosystem;
    • less emphasis on the development of cognitive skills and learning outcomes;
    • a rigid separation of disciplines, with early specialisation and streaming of students into narrow areas of study;
    • limited access particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged areas, with few HEIs that teach in local languages
    • limited teacher and institutional autonomy;
    • inadequate mechanisms for merit-based career management and progression of faculty and institutional leaders;
    • lesser emphasis on research at most universities and colleges, and lack of competitive peer-reviewed research funding across disciplines;
    • suboptimal governance and leadership of HEIs;
    • an ineffective regulatory system; and
    • large affiliating universities resulting in low standards of undergraduate education.
  • This policy envisions the following key changes to the current system:
    • moving towards multidisciplinary universities and colleges, with more HEIS across India that offer medium of instruction in local/Indian languages;
    • moving towards a more multidisciplinary undergraduate education;
    • moving towards faculty and institutional autonomy;
    • revamping curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and student support
    • reaffirming the integrity of faculty and institutional leadership positions
    • establishment of a National Research Foundation
    • governance of HEIs by independent boards having academic and administrative autonomy;
    • “light but tight regulation by a single regulator for higher education;
    • increased access, equity, and inclusion

2. INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING AND CONSOLIDATION

  • By 2040, all higher education institutions (HEIs) shall aim to become multidisciplinary institutions, each of which will aim to have 3,000 or more students.
  • There shall, by 2030, be at least one large multidisciplinary HEI in or near every district.
  • The aim will be to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education including vocational education from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2035.
  • Growth will be in both public and private institutions, with a strong emphasis on developing a large number of outstanding public institutions
  • A university will mean a multidisciplinary institution of higher learning that offers undergraduate and graduate programmes, with high quality teaching, research, and community engagement.
  • The definition of university will thus allow a spectrum of institutions that range from those that place equal emphasis on teaching and research i.e., Research-intensive Universities. Those that place greater emphasis on teaching but still conduct significant research i.e. Teaching-intensive Universities.
  • Autonomous degree-granting College (AC) will refer to a large multidisciplinary that grants undergraduate degrees and is primarily focused on undergraduate teaching though it would not be restricted to that.
  • A stage-wise mechanism for granting graded autonomy to colleges, through a transparent system of graded accreditation, will be established. HEIs will have the autonomy and freedom to move gradually from one category to another, based on their plans, actions, and effectiveness.
  • These three broad types of institutions are not in any natural way a rigid, exclusionary categorization, but are along a continuum.
  • HEIs will support other HEIs in their development, community engagement and service, contribution to various fields of practice, faculty development for the higher education system, and support to school education.
  • Institutions will have the option to run Open Distance Learning (ODL) and online programmes, provided they are accredited to do so.
  • Single-stream HEIs will be phased out over time, and all will move towards becoming vibrant multidisciplinary institutions or parts of vibrant multidisciplinary HEI clusters.
  • The system of affiliated colleges’ will be gradually phased out over a period of fifteen years through a system of graded autonomy, and to be carried out in a challenge mode.
  • The overall higher education sector will aim to be an integrated higher education system, including professional and vocational education.
  • The present complex nomenclature of HEIs in the country such as “deemed to be university’, ‘affiliating university’, ‘affiliating technical university’, ‘unitary university’ shall be replaced simply by ‘university’ on fulfilling the criteria as per norms.

3. TOWARDS A MORE HOLISTIC AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY EDUCATION

  • A holistic and multidisciplinary education would aim to develop all capacities of human beings intellectual, aesthetic, social, physical, emotional, and moral in an integrated manner.
  • Such a holistic education shall be, in the long term, the approach of all undergraduate programmes, including those in professional, technical, and vocational disciplines.
  • Even engineering institutions, such as IITs, will move towards more holistic and multidisciplinary education with more arts and humanities. Students of arts and humanities will aim to learn more science and all will make an effort to incorporate more vocational subjects and soft skills.
  • Imaginative and flexible curricular structures will enable creative combinations of disciplines for study, and would offer multiple entry and exit points.
  • Departments in Languages, Literature, Music, Philosophy, Indology, Art, Dance, Theatre, Education, Mathematics, Statistics, Pure and Applied Sciences, Sociology, Economics, Sports, Translation and Interpretation, etc. will be established and strengthened at all HEIS.
  • Curricula of all HEIs shall include credit-based courses and projects in the areas of community engagement and service, environmental education, and value-based education.
  • The undergraduate degree will be of either 3 or 4-year duration, with multiple exit options within this period, with appropriate certifications, e.g., a certificate after completing 1 year in a discipline or field including vocational and professional areas, or a diploma after 2 years of study, or a Bachelor’s degree after a 3-year programme. The 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s programme, however, shall be the preferred option.
  • An Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) shall be established which would digitally store the academic credits earned from various recognized HEIs so that the degrees from an HEI can be awarded taking into account credits earned.
  • The 4-year programme may also lead to a degree ‘with Research’ if the student completes a rigorous research project in their major area(s) of study as specified by the HEI.
  • Model public universities for holistic and multidisciplinary education, at par with IITs, IIMS, etc., called MERUS (Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities) will be set up and will aim to attain the highest global standards in quality education.
  • HEIs will focus on research and innovation by setting up start-up incubation centres, technology development centres, centres in frontier areas of research, greater industry- academic linkages, and interdisciplinary research including humanities and social sciences research.

4. OPTIMAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS AND SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS

  • Institutions and faculty will have the autonomy to innovate on matters of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment within a broad framework of higher education qualification
  • All assessment systems shall also be decided by the HEI, including those that lead to final certification. The Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) will be revised for instilling innovation and flexibility.
  • HEIs shall move to a criterion-based grading system that assesses student achievement based on the learning goals for each programme
  • HEIs shall also move away from high-stakes examinations towards more continuous and comprehensive evaluation.
  • Each institution will integrate its academic plans ranging from curricular improvement to quality of classroom transaction – into its larger Institutional Development Plan (IDP)
  • High-quality support centres and professional academic and career counselling will be made available to all students.
  • Norms, standards, and guidelines for systemic development, regulation, and accreditation of ODL will be prepared, and a framework for quality of ODL that will be recommendatory for all HEIs will be developed.
  • All programmes, courses, curricula, and pedagogy across subjects, including those in-class, online, and in ODL modes as well as student support will aim to achieve global standards of quality

5. INTERNATIONALIZATION

  • Larger numbers of international students studying in India, and greater mobility to students in India visit, study at, transfer credits to, or carry out research at institutions abroad, and vice versa.
  • India will be promoted as a global study destination providing premium education at affordable costs
  • An International Students Office at each HEI hosting foreign students will be set up to coordinate all matters relating to welcoming and supporting students arriving from abroad.
  • Research/teaching collaborations and faculty/student exchanges with high-quality foreign institutions will be facilitated.
  • High performing Indian universities will be encouraged to set up campuses in other countries.
  • Similarly, selected universities e.g., those from among the top 100 universities in the world will be facilitated to operate in India.
  • A legislative framework facilitating such entry will be put in place, and such universities will be given special dispensation regarding regulatory, governance, and content norms on par with other autonomous institutions of India.

6. STUDENT ACTIVITY AND PARTICIPATION

  • Plenty of opportunities for participation in sports, culture/arts clubs, eco-clubs, activity clubs, community service projects, etc.
  • In every education institution, there shall be counselling systems for handling stress and emotional adjustments.
  • Increasing hostel facilities as needed.
  • All HEIs will ensure quality medical facilities for all students in their institutions.

7. FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS

  • Efforts will be made to incentivize the merit of students belonging to SC, ST, OBC, and other SEDGs.
  • Private HEIs will be encouraged to offer larger numbers of free ships and scholarships to their students.

8. MOTIVATED, ENERGIZED, AND CAPABLE FACULTY

  • All HEIs will be equipped with the basic infrastructure and facilities, including clean drinking water, clean working toilets, blackboards, offices, teaching supplies, libraries, labs, and pleasant classroom spaces and campuses.
  • Every classroom shall have access to the latest educational technology that enables better learning experiences.
  • Faculty will be given the freedom to design their own curricular and pedagogical approaches within the approved framework.
  • HEIs will have clearly defined, independent, and transparent processes and criteria for faculty recruitment.

9. EQUITY AND INCLUSION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

  • Actions that are specific to higher education shall be adopted by all Governments and HEIS.
  • .Steps to be taken by Governments
    • (a) Earmark suitable Government funds for the education of SEDGs
    • (b) Set clear targets for higher GER for SEDGs
    • (c) Enhance gender balance in admissions to HEIS
    • (d) Enhance access by establishing more high-quality HEIs in aspirational districts and Special Education Zones
    • (e) Develop and support high-quality HEIs that teach in local/Indian languages or bilingually
    • (f) Provide more financial assistance and scholarships to SEDGs in both public and private HEIS
    • (g) Conduct outreach programs on higher education opportunities and scholarships among SEDGs
    • (h) Develop and support technology tools for better participation and learning outcomes.
  • Steps to be taken by all HEIS
    • (a) Mitigate opportunity costs and fees for pursuing higher education
    • (b) Provide more financial assistance and scholarships
    • (c) Conduct outreach on higher education opportunities and scholarships
    • (d) Make admissions processes more inclusive
    • (e) Make curriculum more inclusive
    • (f) Increase employability potential of higher education programmes
    • (g) Develop more degree courses taught in Indian languages and bilingually
    • (h) Ensure all buildings and facilities are wheelchair-accessible and disabled-friendly
    • (i) Develop bridge courses for students that come from disadvantaged educational backgrounds
    • (j) Provide socio-emotional and academic support and mentoring
    • (k) Ensure sensitization of faculty, counsellor, and students on gender-identity issue and its inclusion in all aspects of the HEI, including curricula
    • (1) Strictly enforce all no-discrimination and anti-harassment rules
    • (m) Develop Institutional Development Plans that contain specific plans for action on increasing participation from SEDGs.

10. REIMAGINING VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONS

  • Vocational education will be integrated into all school and higher education institutions in a phased manner over the next decade.
  • By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education, for which a clear action plan with targets and timelines will be developed.
  • Higher education institutions will offer vocational education either on their own or in partnership with industry and NGOs.
  • The B.Voc. degrees introduced 2013 will continue to exist, but vocational courses will also be available to students enrolled in all other Bachelor’s degree programmes, including the 4- year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s programmes.
  • ‘Lok Vidya’, i.e., important vocational knowledge developed in India, will be made accessible to students through integration into vocational education courses.
  • The possibility of offering vocational courses through ODL mode will also be explored.
  • MHRD will constitute a National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education(NCIVE), consisting of experts in vocational education and representatives from across Ministries, in collaboration with industry, to oversee this effort.
  • Incubation centres will be set up in higher education institutions in partnership with industries.
  • Indian standards will be aligned with the International Standard Classification of Occupations maintained by the International Labour Organization.
  • The credit-based Framework will also facilitate mobility across ‘general and vocational education.

11. CATALYSING QUALITY ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN ALL FIELDS THROUGH A NEW NATIONAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION

  • Establishment of a National Research Foundation (NRF).
  • The overarching goal of the NRF will be to enable a culture of research to permeate through our universities.
  • The NRF will be governed, independently of the government, by a rotating Board of Governors consisting of the very best researchers and innovators across fields.
  • .The primary activities of the NRF will be to:
    • fund competitive, peer-reviewed grant proposals of all types and across all disciplines;
    • seed, grow, and facilitate research at academic institutions
    • act as a liaison between researchers and relevant branches of government as well as industry; so as to allow breakthroughs to be optimally brought into policy and/or implementation; and
    • recognise outstanding research and progress

12. TRANSFORMING THE REGULATORY SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION

  • Regulatory system of higher education will ensure that the distinct functions of regulation, accreditation, funding, and academic standard setting will be performed by distinct, independent, and empowered bodies.
  • These four structures will be set up as four independent verticals within one umbrella institution, the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI).
    • The first vertical of HECI will be the National Higher Education Regulatory Council(NHERC). It will function as the common, single point regulator for the higher education sector including teacher education and excluding medical and legal education.
    • The second vertical of HECI will, be a “meta-accrediting body’, called the National Accreditation Council (NAC). Accreditation of institutions will be based primarily on basic norms, public self-disclosure, good governance, and outcomes, and it will be carried out by an independent ecosystem of accrediting institutions supervised and overseen by NAC.
    • The third vertical of HECI will be the Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC), which will carry out funding and financing of higher education based on transparent criteria.
    • The fourth vertical of HECI will be the General Education Council (GEC), which will frame expected learning outcomes for higher education programmes, also referred to as “graduate attributes’. A National Higher Education Qualification Framework (NHEQF) will be formulated by the GEC.
  • The functioning of all the independent verticals for Regulation (NHERC), Accreditation (NAC), Funding (HEGC), and Academic Standard Setting (GEC) and the overarching autonomous umbrella body (HECI) itself will be based on transparent public disclosure, and use technology extensively to reduce human interface to ensure efficiency and transparency in their work.
  • The professional councils, such as the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), Veterinary Council of India (VCI), National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), Council of Architecture (CoA), National Council for Vocational Education and Training (NCVET) etc., will act as Professional Standard Setting Bodies (PSSBs).
  • The separation of functions would mean that each vertical within HECI would take on a new, single role which is relevant, meaningful, and important in the new regulatory scheme.

13. CURBING COMMERCIALIZATION OF EDUCATION

  • All education institutions will be held to similar standards of audit and disclosure as a ‘not for profit’ entity. Surpluses, if any, will be reinvested in the educational sector.
  • There will be transparent public disclosure of all these financial matters with recourse to grievance-handling mechanisms to the general public.
  • The accreditation system developed by NAC will provide a complementary check on this system, and NHERC will consider this as one of the key dimensions of its regulatory objective.
  • All fees and charges set by private HEIs will be transparently and fully disclosed, and there shall be no arbitrary increases in these fees/charges during the period of enrolment of any student. This fee determining mechanism will ensure reasonable recovery of cost while ensuring that HEIs discharge their social obligations.

14. EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE AND LEADERSHIP FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

  • Through a suitable system of graded accreditation and graded autonomy, and in a phased manner over a period of 15 years, all HEls in India will aim to become independent self- governing institutions pursuing innovation and excellence.
  • Upon receiving the appropriate graded accreditations that deem the institution ready for such a move, a Board of Governors (BOG) shall be established. Equity considerations will also be taken care of while selecting the members.
  • The BoG of an institution will be empowered to govern the institution free of any external interference. It is envisaged that all HEIs will be incentivized, supported, and mentored during this process, and shall aim to become autonomous and have such an empowered BoG by 2035.
  • The BoG shall be responsible and accountable to the stakeholders through transparent self-disclosures of all relevant records. It will be responsible for meeting all regulatory guidelines mandated by HECI through the National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC).

15. PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

  • Stand-alone agricultural universities, legal universities, health science universities, technical universities, and stand-alone institutions in other fields, shall aim to become multidisciplinary institutions offering holistic and multidisciplinary education.
  • All institutions offering either professional or general education will aim to organically evolve into institutions/clusters offering both seamlessly, and in an integrated manner by 2030.
  • Both capacity and quality of agriculture and allied disciplines must be improved in order to increase agricultural productivity through better skilled graduates and technicians, innovative research, and market-based extension linked to technologies and practices.
  • Institutions offering agricultural education must benefit the local community directly; one approach could be to set up Agricultural Technology Parks to promote technology incubation and dissemination and promote sustainable methodologies.
  • Legal education needs to be competitive globally, adopting best practices and embracing new technologies for wider access to and timely delivery of justice.
  • Healthcare education needs to be re-envisioned so that the duration, structure, and design of the educational programmes need to match the role requirements that graduates will play.
  • Given that people exercise pluralistic choices in healthcare, our healthcare education system
  • must be integrative meaning thereby that all students of allopathic medical education must have a basic understanding of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH), and vice versa.
  • There shall also be a much greater emphasis on preventive healthcare and community medicine in all forms of healthcare education.
  • Technical education will also aim to be offered within multidisciplinary education institutions and programmes and have a renewed focus on opportunities to engage deeply with other disciplines.
  • India must also take the lead in preparing professionals in cutting-edge areas that are fast gaining prominence, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), 3-D machining, big data analysis, and machine learning, in addition to genomic studies, biotechnology, nanotechnology, neuroscience, with important applications to health, environment, and sustainable living that will be woven into undergraduate education for enhancing employability of the youth.

16. PROMOTION OF INDIAN LANGUAGES, ARTS, AND CULTURE

  • The promotion of Indian arts and culture is important not only for the nation but also for the individual. Cultural awareness and expression are among the major competencies considered important to develop in children, in order to provide them with a sense of identity, belonging, as well as an appreciation of other cultures and identities.
  • Indian arts of all kinds must be offered to students at all levels of education, starting with early childhood care and education.
  • Teaching and learning of Indian languages need to be integrated with school and higher education at every level.
  • For languages to remain relevant and vibrant, there must be a steady stream of high-quality learning and print materials in these languages including textbooks, workbooks, videos, plays, poems, novels, magazines, etc.
  • Languages must also have consistent official updates to their vocabularies and dictionaries, widely disseminated, so that the most current issues and concepts can be effectively discussed in these languages.
  • A number of initiatives to foster languages, arts, and culture in school children: greater emphasis on music, arts, and crafts throughout all levels of school; early implementation of the three-language formula to promote multilingualism; teaching in the home/local language wherever possible; conducting more experiential language learning; the hiring of outstanding local artists, writers, craftspersons, and other experts as master instructors; accurate inclusion of traditional Indian knowledge including tribal and other local knowledge throughout into the curriculum, across humanities, sciences, arts, crafts, and sports etc.
  • Strong departments and programmes in Indian languages, comparative literature, creative writing, arts, music, philosophy, etc. will be launched and developed across the country, and degrees including 4-year B.Ed. dual degrees will be developed in these subjects.
  • Every higher education institution and even every school or school complex will aim to have Artist(s)-in-Residence to expose students to art, creativity, and the rich treasures of the region/country.
  • More HEIs, and more programmes in higher education, will use the mother tongue/local language as a medium of instruction, and/or offer programmes bilingually.
  • High-quality programmes and degrees in Translation and Interpretation, Art and Museum Administration, Archaeology, Artefact Conservation, Graphic Design, and Web Design within the higher education system will also be created.
  • Touring by HEI students to different parts of the country, which will not only give a boost to tourism but will also lead to an understanding and appreciation of diversity, culture, traditions and knowledge of different parts of India.
  • Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI) will be established. The IITI shall also make extensive use of technology to aid in its translation and interpretation efforts.
  • Sanskrit will be mainstreamed with strong offerings in school – including as one of the language options in the three-language formula – as well as in higher education. Sanskrit Universities too will move towards becoming large multidisciplinary institutions of higher learning
  • India will similarly expand its institutes and universities studying all classical languages and literature, with strong efforts to collect, preserve, translate, and study the tens of thousands of manuscripts that have not yet received their due attention.
  • Sanskrit and all Indian language institutes and departments across the country will be significantly strengthened
  • Classical language institutes will aim to be merged with universities, while maintaining their autonomy, so that faculty may work, and students too may be trained as part of robust a rigorous multidisciplinary programmes.
  • Universities dedicated to languages will become multidisciplinary.
  • National Institute (or Institutes) for Pali, Persian and Prakrit will also be set up within a university campus.
  • For each of the languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, Academies will be established consisting of some of the greatest scholars and native speakers. These Academies for Eighth Schedule languages will be established by the Central Government in consultation or collaboration with State Governments. Academies for other highly spoken Indian languages may also be similarly established by the Centre and/or States.
  • All languages in India, and their associated arts and culture will be documented through a web-based platform/portal/wiki, in order to preserve endangered and all Indian languages and their associated rich local arts and culture.
  • Scholarships for people of all ages to study Indian Languages, Arts, and Culture with local masters and/or within the higher education system will be established.

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